Next-Generation Halogen Free Flame Retardants Based on Organic Waste

Bio-macromolecules from municipal solid bio-waste fractions and fish waste for high added value applications
We are approaching the end of the DAFIA Project. We would like to thank you all for supporting us. It was a great a pleasure.

Due to the problems associated to environment and health of halogen-based flame retardants (FR), they are being substituted by phosphorus, nitrogen or inorganic based alternatives and their oil-derived organic compounds when they are used in polymeric material. However, some of these additives come from fossil resources and, besides, phosphorous has been considered as a critical raw material in Europe. Thus, the development of FRs from renewable sources, in particular from organic waste, is of a great interest in Europe, which will contribute to diminish the dependence of fossil raw materials and will reduce the toxicity and the environmental impact of the flame-retardant solutions. In recent investigations, biomacromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids have shown flame retardant properties when applied as coatings on textiles, well suited as these applications do not require flame retardants with thermal resistance up to 180ºC. The main objective of the DAFIA project is to explore the conversion routes of municipal solid waste (MSW), and marine rest raw-materials (MRRM) from the fish processing industries, to obtain high added value products, i.e. flame retardants, edible/barrier coatings and chemical building blocks (dicarboxylic acids and diamine) to produce biopolymers for a wide range industrial application. As part of the DAFIA project, a novel bio-additive has been developed. This new flame retardant (FR) is based on lignosulfonate, a by-product of the pulping industry and contains both phosphorus and nitrogen atoms. It is an effective flame retardant which meets the highest FR standards for the consumer electronics and automobile sectors, while maintaining mechanical properties at a competitive cost. Beyond the state of the art, DAFIA aims to develop a new range of cost competitive and thermally stabilized nucleic-acid based flame retardants, using non pollutant chemical routes (free of organic solvents, low temperatures, etc.). These will be used in fire-protection of polymers as an effective alternative to ammonium polyphosphate.

Final Product

According to the lab tests conducted by AIMPLAS. Most effective and the efficient formulation for the Bio Flame Retardant is been composed. With the lab test equipment and machinery of Mine Colours these components have been mixed and extruded, with the assitance of side feeder, to obtain the final product. Scaled -up final product was sent to AIMPLAS test the mechanical properties.


  • Bio-based flame retardants have been synthetized from different renewable resources.
  • It is important to select properly the source considering the extraction effectiveness and ensuring the lack of competitiveness with animal and human food chain
  • Fish industry generate waste which is nowadays landfilled, incinerated or thrown into the sea
  • AIMPLAS, with the help of other partners, is studying their valorization to produce FR additives
  • Promising results have been obtained up to date with ligning-based FR, used in high temperature polyamides


  • Fire performance targets have been achieved but some properties have to be∙
  • Lower smoke release
  • Higher thermal stability
  • Prevent degradation of PA66 Processing
  • Synthesis FR
  • Improve mechanical performance

This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement Nº 720770.